Learning is a particularly important mechanism for the development of every subject and can be defined as a process that allows for the acquisition of new concepts and information, a behavioral modification that supports the change. Throughout history, different perspectives have attempted to describe and define such a complex mechanism: from those more focused on localized and specific aspects of learning, through Cognitivism that considered learning as a procedural, constructive and elaboration process, up to Bateson’s deutero-learning that defined it as a global, relational and contextual path. The heterogeneity that characterizes the learning process and its modalities, together with the heterogeneity of the social and relational contexts in which subjects grow and develop, requires new ways of thinking and teaching that can meet the characteristics and peculiarities of every person. Contexts like family and school must respect these differential learning modalities by aiming at new forms of teaching which should not be limited to convey knowledge as mere accumulation of information. In didactics, the flipped classroom has led to consider the importance and complexity of the learning processes, in all its shades and nuances, leaving the student free to learn according to his own rhythms and ways, respecting everybody’s needs and moving away from the traditional model of teaching.
The exploration of different didactic and educational methodologies and theories allows considering and reconsidering the importance of the processes and objectives of the didactic intervention. The centrality of the learning processes stems from its complexity that highlights needs and requirements, by aiming at the development of accurate and functional methods. Starting from the theoretical perspectives taken into consideration, encouraging alternative perspectives for didactics arise, which support paths where knowledge building and the processes that characterize it become the focal point of interest and investigation, and contrasting with the standardization of abilities and potentialities of every subject.
Didactics, as a science that deals with the set of tools and forms of mediation making knowledge available to students, must aim at a new image of school and different dimensions of learning that intersect in family, school and social contexts. A more complete and detailed form of the learning process in which not only the concepts and knowledge learned from the student are important, but also the set of attitudes and behaviors with which he is able to support, direct and improve his own learning activity. An overview that students should acquire and assimilate in order to make knowledge-sharing relationships possible, rejecting sterile and artificial forms of education.
According to Morin, the current distinction generated by the separation of the various disciplines is limited and limiting not only for the knowledge of oneself, but also for the vision of the human being’s needs, which, instead, should be represented by a complex physical, historical and social factors unity. It is desirable for any discipline, combined with global knowledge, to support students in becoming aware of the importance of the reflective thought, which allows them taking a critical and complex viewpoint that can aim at achieving knowledge of knowledge (Morin, E., 1999). In this perspective, many stimuli arise to reshape, to give new life to education, and to broaden the fields of interest and investigation of didactics.